Jumat, 27 Januari 2012

RAJANGAN PAKPIE PLOSO : Spesial Tobacco From Jombang


INTRODUCTION
 Rajangan Pak pie Ploso is “added sugar tobacco” which planted in three regencies that are closed to each other, viz. Jombang, Lamongan and Mojokerto. The main area is in Ploso, Kabuh, Kudu, Ngusikan and Plandaan (Jombang), Ngimbang (Lamongan), and Dawar Blandong (Mojokerto). The area of Rajangan Ploso tobacco in every region is limited buta total area in three region about 8.000 hectares






ECOLOGY
Based on agro climatic zone, area of Rajangan Pak pie Ploso tobacco is divided into two types viz E type in the Northern part and D3 type in the Southern part of region (Schmidt & Ferguson) with annual rain fall abaout 1.800 – 2.000 mm per year.
 Rajangan Pak pie Ploso tobacco is planted  mostly  in rain fed low land (sawah tadah hujan) and semi technical irrigated low land  (sawah). It is planted on various types of soil, viz. Grumosol and association of Gray Alluvial and Grayish brown Alluvial in Jombang and Grumusol in Lamongan and Mojokerto. The altitude ranges are mostly 5 – 200 m above sea level.
PROFILE OF PLOSO TOBACCO
Ecosystem and farmers habit in every region are different. Various types of tobacco will influence the farmers to manage cultural practices of Rajangan Ploso tobacco, so the results will be various qualities.
A.    Varieties
The main varieties planted are Jinten, and  Menilo, with illustrated  as below:
                                                 Menilo                                  Jinten
Habitu├ęs                              Pyramidal, cylindrical               Cylindrical   
Leaf shape                          Oval, elliptical                          Oval, ellipticical
Leaf lamina                          Droopy                                   Droopy
Leaves number                    18 - 25                                   27 - 30
Internodes                           Long                                      Short
Harvested ages                   70 - 90 days                           70 – 80 days
Harvesting system                Phases, 4 times reaping          Phases, 4 times reaping
Leaf size                              Large, small                           Large
End product                        Sliced, added sugar                Sliced, added sugar
Some more varieties will appear later due to the existence of Gilang Nongko and Semboja Hijau coming from Kendal and Rejeb besar from Jember

B. Cultural Practices
1.    Seedling
The seedling is mostly bought from the seedling traders which is poor quality, un uniform, small size and too early to planting due to plenty of replanting and un even crop. The seedling quality should be 45 days after sowing, healthy and uniform, hard stem, good root system and 10 – 12 cm high


2.    Land Preparation
Land preparation is firstly practiced by plowing then the land is allowed to dry for the time being. The following is ridging with double rows or tram line by hoeing. Plant holes (“Lubang Tanam”), arranged at planting space by hoeing, are similarity in the three regions. The optimum planting space is (100  x 80 ) x 40 cm with population about 27.000 plants per hectares
3.    Planting and fertilization
The tradition of the farmers in Jombang, Lamongan and Mojokerto, transplanting the seedling on the hole, made by stick in “kowakan”, then the root is covered with river mud.
The kinds and dosage of fertilizers used in Rajangan Ploso tobacco is  100 kg/ha Urea,  500 kg/ha ZA, 200 kg/ha SP36 and 200 kg/ha ZK. The ratio of N : P2O5 : K2O is 151 : 72 : 100.
Two time fertilization is needed. First fertilization or  Basal fertilization was doing before or as soon as possible after transplanting with 100 kg/ha Urea, 200 kg/ha ZA, 200 kg/ha SP36 and 100 kg/ha ZK. Second fertilization was doing before first irrigation or about 18 – 20 days after transplanting with 300 kg/ha ZA and 100 kg/ha ZK. There are two ways of application viz. pouring fertilizers solution and dropping on the hole by dibbling. Interval of pouring is 5 – 7 days with 6 – 7 applications.
4.    Irrigation
After planting, watering is done everyday up to 3 days, then stop watering until 20 days and we call stress period to stimulate root development.
First irrigation or watering was done at 21 days after planting with flooding or pouring system. Keep the soil still humid until topping stages or fast growing stages. Last irrigation should be done if first reaping was done. Irrigation or watering at reaping stages will reduce quality tobacco result.
5.    Re Ridging and weeding
In Jombang, Lamongan and Mojokerto re ridging is done twice, i.e. at age of 5 – 10 days after transplanting  for heavy re ridging especially if we used wet transplanting system  and at 25 days or after first irrigation for improve soil aeration or cleaning the weed. Light re ridging should be done after irrigation or after rain fall
6.    Pest and disease control
Twice Chemical application  for pest diseases control should be done is routine one and routine two. Routine one should be done as soon as possible after transplanting use metindo or lannate. Routine two should be done before first irrigation using Metindo or Actara. The kinds of pest in Rajangan Ploso mostly is cut worm, bud worm, leaf worm, grass hoper and Aphid. The generally diseases infection is TMV, Leaf Curl, Bacterial wilt and Lanas by Phytopthora infestans.
 
7.    Topping and suckering
Topping is importand stages to develop yield and quality. Topping should be done at 60 – 70 days after transplanting or at button stages. The number of leave to leaving is 22 – 24 leaves for Jinten variety and 18 – 20 leaves for Menilo variety.
About 3 – 4 times suckering with interval of 7 – 10 days is done manually. Best suckering  using sucker control like at Tamex.



8.    Harvesting and post harvest processing
Four phases of hand picking are practiced aside from four lower leaves dry on stalk, which will be picked as cured leaf (“whole leaves call krosok hang jawa”).
The leaf should be sorting and then the yellowing and wilting stages for 2 to 4 days depend on stalk position. The lower leaf need shorter time to yellowing but the higher leaf positions need more time to yellowing. The length of yellowing is also determined by the color needed by the consumers. The longer the yellowing caused the darker the end product.
The midribs are flattened before arranging and rolling the leaf to cutting or slicing. Slicing is done at night. Before curing the fresh sliced leaves is mixed and add sugar powder with rate of 2 kg sugar per 100 kg sliced fresh leaves. Spreading the fresh slicing tobacco  on the bamboo tray (“widig”). Then sun drying about 2 – 3 days until the slicing tobacco was dry. The sliced tobacco then  put into the cool place in order to make it soft and flexible. Then it is bale with bale cover like at cotton

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Good articles and information ...........